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Logging iptables rules

When debugging certain custom firewall rules, it can sometimes be extremely useful log the rule's activity.
For example, the following rule logs all input firewall activity. The logs will be available via dmesg or syslog.

iptables -A INPUT -j LOG --log-prefix " iptables INPUT "

Awesome Applications: 

Custom Nagios mdadm monitoring: check_mdadm-raid

Simple Nagios mdadm monitoring plugin.

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

# Tony Baltazar. root[@]

OK = 0

# Note to self, mdadm exit status:
#0 The array is functioning normally.
#1 The array has at least one failed device.
#2 The array has multiple failed devices such that it is unusable.
#4 There was an error while trying to get information about the device.

raid_device = '/dev/md0'

get_raid_output = %x[sudo mdadm --detail #{raid_device}].lines.to_a

get_raid_status = get_raid_output.grep(/\sState\s:\s/).to_s.match(/:\s(.*)\\n\"\]/)
raid_state = get_raid_status[1].strip

if raid_state.empty?
 print "Unable to get RAID status!"

if /^(clean(, checking)?|active)$/.match(raid_state) 
 print "RAID OK: #{raid_state}"
 exit OK
elsif /degraded/i.match(raid_state)
 print "WARNING RAID: #{raid_state}"
elsif /fail/i.match(raid_state)
 print "CRITICAL RAID: #{raid_state}"
 print "UNKNOWN RAID detected: #{raid_state}"


Awesome Applications: 

Monitoring computer's temperature with lm_sensors

One of the primary reasons I use SSD drives on both of my Mac Minis that I use as hypervisors (besides speed), is that compared to regular hard drives, SSD drives consume far less power and more importantly generate less heat. Before using SSD drives on my machines, the fan noise both of them made during the middle of summer was pretty evident compared to any other time during the year.

Although at the time I did little research about proactively monitoring the temperature of my machines, now thanks to the Nagios book that I'm currently reading, I learned about the tool lm-sensors, which is available to monitor the hardware temperature in Linux.

Installing lm-sersors in Ubuntu Server 12.04 is really simple.

sudo apt-get install libsensors4 libsensors4-dev lm-sensors

Since lm-sensors requires low-level hooks to monitor hardware temperate, it comes with the utility sensors-detect, which can be used to automatically detect and load the appropriate kernel modules for the lm-sensors tool to function on the respective piece of hardware.

[email protected]:~$ sudo sensors-detect
# sensors-detect revision 5984 (2011-07-10 21:22:53 +0200)
# System: Apple Inc. Macmini5,1
# Board: Apple Inc. Mac-8ED6AF5B48C039E1

This program will help you determine which kernel modules you need
to load to use lm_sensors most effectively. It is generally safe
and recommended to accept the default answers to all questions,
unless you know what you're doing.

Some south bridges, CPUs or memory controllers contain embedded sensors.
Do you want to scan for them? This is totally safe. (YES/no): YES

In the case of my mid 2011 Apple Mac Minis, it was only able to use the coretemp module. File /etc/modules :

# Generated by sensors-detect on Sat Feb  2 21:22:20 2013
# Chip drivers

After the module has been added, then its just a matter of loading the recently applied modules.

Do you want to add these lines automatically to /etc/modules? (yes/NO)yes

Monitoring programs won't work until the needed modules are
loaded. You may want to run 'service module-init-tools start'
to load them.

Unloading i2c-dev... OK
Unloading i2c-i801... OK
Unloading cpuid... OK

[email protected]:~$ sudo service module-init-tools start
module-init-tools stop/waiting
[email protected]:~$

Now that the appropiate kernel modules have been loaded. I have everything needed to check the temperature.

[email protected]:~$ sensors
Adapter: ISA adapter
Physical id 0: +49.0°C (high = +86.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
Core 0: +48.0°C (high = +86.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
Core 1: +50.0°C (high = +86.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)

Adapter: ISA adapter
Exhaust : 1801 RPM (min = 1800 RPM)
TA0P: +36.0°C
TA0p: +36.0°C
TA1P: +34.8°C
TA1p: +34.8°C
TC0C: +47.0°C
TC0D: +44.8°C
TC0E: +57.5°C
TC0F: +58.5°C
TC0G: +94.0°C
TC0J: +0.8°C
TC0P: +42.5°C
TC0c: +47.0°C
TC0d: +44.8°C
TC0p: +42.5°C
TC1C: +50.0°C
TC1c: +50.0°C
TCFC: +0.2°C
TCGC: +49.0°C
TCGc: +49.0°C
TCPG: +98.0°C
TCSC: +50.0°C
TCSc: +50.0°C
TCTD: +255.5°C
TCXC: +49.5°C

Of course, I just had to write a Nagios plugin to monitor them:

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use strict;
# Tony Baltazar. root[@]

use constant OK => 0;
use constant WARNING => 1;
use constant CRITICAL => 2;
use constant UNKNOWN => 3;

my %THRESHOLDS = (OK => 70, WARNING => 75, CRITICAL => 86);

# Sample output
#Physical id 0:  +55.0°C  (high = +86.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
#Core 0:         +54.0°C  (high = +86.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
#Core 1:         +55.0°C  (high = +86.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
my @get_current_heat = split "\n", `sensors 2>/dev/null|grep -E -e '(Physical id 0|Core [0-1])'`;

my $counter = 0;
my $output_string;

for my $heat_usage_per_core (@get_current_heat) {
	$heat_usage_per_core =~ /(.*):\s+\+([0-9]{1,3})/;
	my $core = $1;
	my $temp = $2;
	if ($temp < $THRESHOLDS{OK}) {
		$output_string .= "$core - temperature : $temp" . 'C | ';
	} elsif ( ($temp > $THRESHOLDS{OK}) && ($temp >= $THRESHOLDS{WARNING}) && ($temp < $THRESHOLDS{CRITICAL}) ) {
		print "WARNING! $core temperature: $temp\n";
	} elsif ( ($temp > $THRESHOLDS{OK}) && ($temp > $THRESHOLDS{WARNING}) && ($temp >= $THRESHOLDS{CRITICAL}) ) { 
		print "CRITICAL! $core temperature: $temp\n";

if ($counter == 3 ) {
	print $output_string;
} else {
	print "Unable to get all CPU's temperature.\n";



Awesome Applications: 

Monitoring DHCP server with check_dhcp

Setting Nagios to monitor my DHCP server using the plugin check_dhcp was a little tricky to setup.

First, the check_dhcp documentation indicates setting setuid on the check_dhcp binary in order to successfully query the dhcp server and receive a valid dhcp offer.

[email protected] libexec]# su - nagios -c '/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_dhcp -s'
Warning: This plugin must be either run as root or setuid root.
To run as root, you can use a tool like sudo.
To set the setuid permissions, use the command:
chmod u+s yourpluginfile
Error: Could not bind socket to interface eth0. Check your privileges...


chown root.root check_dhcp
chmod u+s check_dhcp

Secondly, since I always have all of my machines block all incoming traffic, I had to open up the UDP port 68 in order for the Nagios machine to accept the dhcp offer.

iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 68 -j ACCEPT


Awesome Applications: 

Custom WordPress auto update via FTP

When I originally migrated my blog off GoDaddy, one of the things that stopped functioning was the WordPress auto update feature. Luckily, I was able to easily overcome this using my own custom FTP settings. For its simplicity, I used vsftpd.


yum install vsftpd
chkconfig vsftpd on

Configure vsftpd to jail FTP users to their home directory in /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf :


Restart vftpd:

/etc/init.d/vsftpd restart

Now, I'll create the user that will be used to download and install the WordPress auto updates. :

useradd -d /PATH/TO/WORDPRESS/SITE -G apache -s /sbin/nologin apache_ftp_user
passwd apache_ftp_user

Before applying an update, update your permissions:

chown -R apache_ftp_user:apache /PATH/TO/WORDPRESS/SITE

Now use apache_ftp_user username and password on the WordPress FTP connection wizard page:

WordPress FTP Connection Information

Awesome Applications: 

Certificate validation issue during Spacewalk install

For some really annoying reason Spacewalk failed to populate the database during the initial setup.
Fix: Make sure your user's database password does not have special characters!

[[email protected] ~]# spacewalk-setup --disconnected --external-db
** Database: Setting up database connection for PostgreSQL backend.
Hostname (leave empty for local)?
Database? dbnamehere
Username? usernamehere
** Database: Populating database.
The Database has schema. Would you like to clear the database [Y]? Y
** Database: Clearing database.
** Database: Shutting down spacewalk services that may be using DB.
** Database: Services stopped. Clearing DB.
** Database: Re-populating database.
*** Progress: ##################################
* Setting up users and groups.
** GPG: Initializing GPG and importing key.
* Performing initial configuration.
* Activating Spacewalk.
** Loading Spacewalk Certificate.
** Verifying certificate locally.
** Activating Spacewalk.
There was a problem validating the satellite certificate: 1



Awesome Applications: 

OpenBSD: PF firewall for the paranoid

Block all traffic except for ssh.


tcp_services = "{ 22 }"
block all
pass out on em0 proto tcp to any port $tcp_services keep state
pass in on em0 proto tcp to any port $tcp_services keep state

Enabling rules:

# pfctl -e ; pfctl -f /etc/pf.conf
pfctl: pf already enabled

Awesome Applications: 


Writing custom Nagios plugins: check_public-ip

Now that I think Nagios is the greatest thing since slice bread, I'm slowly but surely re-writing all my custom monitoring scripts to Nagios plugins.

The following is a Nagios plugin ready script that I used to replace my old public IP monitoring (See ).



ip=`curl -connect-timeout 30 -s`

if [ "$current_ip" != "$ip" ] || [ -z "$ip" ]
        if [[ "$ip" =~ "Service Unavailable" ]] || [[ "$ip" =~ "html" ]]
                echo "IP service monitoring is unavailable."
                exit $STATE_WARNING
        elif [[ "$ip"  =~ [0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3} ]]
                echo "ALERT: Public IP has changed. NEW IP: $ip"
                exit $STATE_CRITICAL
                echo "Unknown state detected."
                exit $STATE_UNKNOWN

        echo "Public OK: $ip"
        exit $STATE_OK


Awesome Applications: 

Cron monitoring plugin for Nagios


CRON_CHECK=`ps aux | grep cron|grep -v grep|awk '{print $NF}'|grep -E -e '^(/usr/sbin/cron|crond)$'|wc -l`

case "${CRON_CHECK}" in
        0)  echo "Crond is not running."; exit ${STATE_CRITICAL}
        1)  echo "Crond is running."; exit ${STATE_OK}
        *)  echo "More than one crond process detected / crond is in an unknown state."; exit ${STATE_WARNING}


Awesome Applications: 

Installing Nagios Remote Plugin Executor in FreeBSD 9.1

This also installs the Nagios plugins in addition of nrpe. Follow the text-based menu install options. The installer will create and configure the nagios user account, and will install the naios and nrpe plugins in /usr/local/libexec/nagios .

cd /usr/ports/net-mgmt/nrpe2
make install clean

Update permissions.

chown -R nagios:nagios /usr/local/libexec/nagios

Create nrpe config file.

cd /usr/local/etc
cp nrpe.cfg-sample nrpe.cfg

Add the following entry to /etc/rc.conf .


Edit nrpe.cfg (Example: is my nagios server)


Start the nrpe daemon.

/usr/local/etc/rc.d/nrpe2 start

Awesome Applications: 



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